Damasio is arguing that emotions are innate. He believes that we are all born with a foundation of emotions. For example, a baby frowns when it is not receiving what it needs. This is a display of the emotion of sadness. This is not learnt, this is innate and is the only way the baby can communicate with the Mother. The emotions we have are naturally ingrained in us, but how we express them individually will be different depending on the area we reside in. However, different cultural norms and values will cause individuals to display their emotions and feelings differently. This is because of the social construction of norms and the ascribed meanings behind them.