What is pessimistic about Freud’s theory in general and about his inter-group psychology in particular?
Moghaddam says Freud's model of in-group relations is most apparent when dealing with displaced aggression and its role towards in-group cohesion. Freud also states that libidinal ties (contains love and positive emotions as well as hostile and negative emotions) are still persistent in-group/social settings. It is the leader's job in a group to divert and direct the aggression outside the group. Moghaddam quotes Freud saying, it is always possible to “bind together a considerable number of people in love so long as there are other people left over to receive the manifestations of their aggressiveness." This is the pessimistic view of Freud's theory about inter-group psychology in the sense that there always has to be a group of lesser power to absorb the aggression of a higher power group. Moghaddam says this theory explains inter-group conflicts, from discrimination to warfare.