Damaiso describes emotions as actions or movements, whereas some emotions are visible (occurring in the face or voice) and others are non visible. Emotions are also the basis of feelings. He also talks about how some emotions are innate, which are not influenced from the external environment. Therefore, he is suggesting that some emotions are inborn and unlearned, while other emotional responses are a result of exposure to another factor in the environment. He uses Robert Hinde's work on fear as an illustration. Where a monkey's innate fear of snakes is not just from seeing the snake itself but also because the monkey sees the mothers fearful reaction to the snake as well.