In my opinion, What Maghaddam said about identity is about the sense of identity of a cultural group. Identity arise out of Cultural diversity of the world, many of conflicts, discrimination, inter-group aggression are caused by identity. Specially minorities are the main victim in every societies. Sense of identity is related to country policy and many countries introduced certain policy aim to improve the power and status of minorities to maintain society harmony. Governments believe that increasing their social status by legislation can effectively improve the confidence of a ethic group and strengthen their sense of identity. For example, Chinese government impart more benefits to minorities, such as bonus marks in Gaokao ( College Entrance Examination) if you are not a ethnic Han. On the other hand, the partiality on policy may also backfire, minorities can become more visible targeted been discriminated.