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29 64 final exam
by liebig19
May 2, 2018 11:33:49 GMT

November 29

Board Threads Posts Last Post
No New Posts The Repertory Grid Technique

Discuss whether the repertory grid technique exercise in class seemed to elicit constructs that make sense to you as ways that you typically construe your world. Did it reveal any interesting difference between the constructs you elicited and those of the others in your group? Do you think these differences were because of the people being rated or were they because of the people doing the rating? How would Butt hope you answer this last question? Why?

9 16 Categorizing Bias
by amrita
Dec 9, 2017 3:17:06 GMT
No New Posts A true self?

What does Butt mean when he says that the issue of “What constitutes one’s true self?” would not arise outside the late modern context? What is his rationale for taking this position? How is the issue relevant to the conception of self that he prefers?

12 24 true self
by mikka
Dec 9, 2017 19:18:00 GMT
No New Posts Schneider's point

Review Butt’s description of Schneider, the World War I veteran who lost the ability to locate himself in time and space (original description pp. 98/99). What point is Butt trying to make about the self by his reference to Schneider in relation to the concept of the existential self (pp. 130/131)?

6 9 Schneider losing meaning making system
by miluska7
Dec 9, 2017 20:22:09 GMT
No New Posts Pre-reflection in Butt and Damasio

Explain in what way the ideas presented by Damasio about emotion are consistent (or not) with Butt’s claim that “Our connection with others is primarily pre-reflective.” (p. 137)

9 15 Pre-reflection in Butt and Damasio
by amrita
Dec 9, 2017 3:24:15 GMT
No New Posts What it means to have a self

Butt says that “what ‘having a self’ means is having a constructive relationship to the past and the future” (p. 137). Explain what you think this quotation means. Explain why you think he includes the word “constructive” in his description.

18 25 Having a self
by mvanjaa
Dec 12, 2017 4:12:05 GMT
No New Posts A decentred self

Butt says that Berger and Luckmann propose “a decentred self that makes history, but not in circumstances of its own making” p.126. Explain what you think this quotation means. Explain, in particular, what you think the word “decentred” refers to.

5 5 A Decentred Self
by jahmald98
Dec 3, 2017 18:19:06 GMT

November 27

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No New Posts Agency and structural determination

Butt contrasts agency with structural determination. Indicate whether the following approaches are more consistent with the former or with the latter. Explain your choices.

a. Behaviourists b. Damasio c. Humanists (Rogers & Maslow) d. Dark social constructionists e. Berger and Luckmann

4 7 Agency and Structural determination
by tmiric
Dec 9, 2017 16:52:45 GMT
No New Posts Practical consequences of "being" bodies

Butt suggests that we should think of ourselves as being bodies rather than as having bodies. Merleau-Ponty suggests we think of ourselves in terms of being-in-the-world. What practical consequences can you imagine might follow for people (Psychologists, for example) who take this suggestion seriously and try to live by it?

2 4 Practical consequences of "being" bodies
by diti86
Dec 6, 2017 3:35:45 GMT
No New Posts Phenomenological definitions

How would a phenomenological definition of a concept (marriage, autism, greed, for example) differ from an objective one? How would one go about evaluating the quality of a particular phenomenological definition that someone proposed for one of these concepts?

5 8 Phenomenological defination
by abidapas
Dec 9, 2017 14:43:56 GMT
No New Posts Constructive bankruptcy

What is meant by the concept of "constructive bankruptcy," and what is important about this concept? Can you provide an example from your personal life or from a character in a novel or film who seems close to constructive bankruptcy? Explain your example.

14 16 Constructive Bankruptcy
by miluska7
Dec 9, 2017 20:32:26 GMT
No New Posts Joint action

Explain your understanding of the meaning and the significance of the concept of "joint action". Provide an example of a time why you engaged in joint action as described by Butt. Would you agree that joint action is a better way to describe your example than to describe it as an interaction of personality and situational variables?

17 26 joint action
by Asees
Dec 9, 2017 18:41:51 GMT
No New Posts Analyzing an argument between lovers

Imagine that Mead, Freud, and Skinner each overhear an argument between two lovers and that they attempt to analyze it from their respective points of view. Describe what features of the conversation you think each of the three is likely to pay attention to in order to understand the two people who are arguing. Explain why you think they would make these choices.

2 4 Analyzing an argument between lovers
by Asees
Dec 9, 2017 22:59:10 GMT
No New Posts Achieving and constructing individuality

Butt says, "We are part of other people - in internal relations with them. Our individuality is an achievement and a construction, not a given" (p. 119). Explain your understanding of the meaning and significance of this quotation.

4 9 We are part of other people
by amrita
Dec 9, 2017 3:22:33 GMT
No New Posts PTSD and interpretive understanding

What do you see as the advantages and the disadvantages of conceptualizing PTSD from an interpretive understanding point of view as described by Butt in Chapter 6?

4 8 PTSD and interpretative understanding
by Asees
Dec 9, 2017 18:22:10 GMT
No New Posts Person variables and situation variables

Proponents of analyzing phenomena from a phenomenological perspective object to attempting to separate the phenomena into person variables and situation variables. Why?

2 2 Person and Situation Variables
by mgm
Dec 2, 2017 0:18:45 GMT
No New Posts The natural attitude

Butt says that our observations, interpretations, and actions with respect to others (and to the world in general) "are infused with the natural attitude of our time" (p. 111). Explain what this means and give some examples to illustrate it.

4 8 The Natural Attitude
by Angelika T.
Dec 4, 2017 20:22:13 GMT

November 22

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No New Posts Human nature or social construction?

Social constructionism questions our sense that many social phenomena and our ideas about them are “natural” or based in “human nature.” Create a list of phenomena or ideas that many people (perhaps you yourself at some time in the past) take for granted as natural but that seem on closer examination to actually be social constructions.

10 14 Social construction
by mvanjaa
Dec 12, 2017 4:07:21 GMT
No New Posts Characteristics of social constructionism

Causal science, reductionism, and individualism are terms that we have associated with contemporary Psychology during our course. Which of these terms, if any, is consistent with social constructionism as described by Butt? Explain.

7 8 Social Construction
by tmiric
Dec 9, 2017 1:32:12 GMT
No New Posts Gergen's four presumptions

Gergen has written that social constructionism challenges “four overarching presumptions in modern psychology: the existence of a basic subject matter; the ultimate discovery of universal properties; an emphasis on experimental method; and a belief in research as progressive” (Butt, p. 62). Summarize what is involved in each of these presumptions and in what way social constructionism takes a position different from that of modern psychology.

1 1 Gergen's Four Presumptions
by ambercyw
Nov 24, 2017 18:32:38 GMT
No New Posts Mere puppet AND free agent

Berger and Luckmann argue that we are both free agents and mere puppets (Butt, p. 74), that we are both constructed by society and constructors of society. Provide an example of one or more situations in your everyday life where you are both a free agent and a puppet in the sense intended by Berger and Luckmann.

10 16 mere puppet and free agent
by amrita
Dec 9, 2017 3:19:59 GMT
No New Posts Terminology for Understanding People

Give a brief description of what is meant by each of the following terms and how they are used by Butt in his description of social constructionism and other approaches to the understanding of people:

Pragmatism; Hermeneutics; Discourse and discourse analysis; Agency; Internalisation, externalisation, objectivation; Verstehen; phenomenological

4 5 Terminology
by abidapas
Dec 8, 2017 13:56:26 GMT
No New Posts Language games

Moghaddam says that for social constructionists “language is recognized as not just descriptive, but constructive”. Butt introduces (p. 68) the concept of language games and says that promising, warning, and cajoling are examples of such games. Is the concept of language games more consistent with the idea of language as descriptive or with the idea of language as constructive? Explain.

1 2 Language Games are Constructive
by ahmad
Nov 26, 2017 22:12:09 GMT
No New Posts People as texts

Butt is giving us (and Psychologists, in general) advice about how to understand people. One possibility he suggests is that we try to interpret people in the same way that we interpret texts. He cautions, however, "If we want to appreciate a text, we will never do it by learning the alphabet" (p. 88). Explain what you think his comment means about how Psychologists should go about studying people.

5 7 People as texts
by marianne24
Dec 7, 2017 3:56:10 GMT
No New Posts Social constructionism: light and dark

Summarize the distinction that Butt makes between the light and dark forms of social construction.

29 50 Light vs Dark
by Asees
Dec 9, 2017 19:09:31 GMT

November 20

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No New Posts Understanding People exercise


Complete the following exercise:

1. Select a psychological phenomenon, something that a person might be interested in trying to change. See several examples here: http://www.yorku.ca/rsheese2/1010/1120l.docx .

2. Select two or more approaches to the study of psychology/personality described by Butt (and listed at the end of the same url).

3. Summarize your sense of the ways in which the chosen approaches differ regarding how they would try to understand or explain the phenomenon you selected.

4. Summarize your sense of how these two approaches differ regarding what they might suggest for trying to change the phenomenon.

45 59 Lazybro
by marianne24
Dec 7, 2017 3:40:25 GMT

November 15

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No New Posts A sociological homeostasis

Ron has repeated in class that Damasio is seeking to extend the concept of homeostasis beyond the biological level to the psychological and sociological levels. Describe one way in which Damasio argues for the importance of homeostasis at the sociological level.

9 10 A Sociological Homeostasis
by tmiric
Dec 8, 2017 2:07:15 GMT
No New Posts Atomism and Individualism in Psychology

Identify a particular psychological phenomenon that we have discussed at some point in the course (conformity or obedience to authority, for example). Indicate in what ways the approach of psychologists to the study of this phenomenon seems to be atomistic and/or individualistic.

6 12 Atomism
by Asees
Dec 9, 2017 23:17:09 GMT
No New Posts Balance in Damasio's thinking

Much of Damasio's thinking about human emotion and the achievement of a contented life is based on a notion of balance. Describe the ways in which this concept is important to his thinking.

4 4 Balance in Damasio's thinking
by diti86
Nov 18, 2017 4:56:23 GMT
No New Posts Understanding Cleo's behaviour

Two psychologists, Charles and Inez, have a common acquaintance named Cleo. Charles thinks of himself as a causal scientist, but Inez considers herself a normative scientist. Both agree, however, that Cleo is very difficult to work with because she is quick to become frustrated and then to respond angrily to those around her. What kinds of explanations for Cleo's behaviour do you imagine Charles might propose? What kinds of explanations for Cleo's behaviour do you imagine Inez might propose?

5 7 cleo
by amrita
Dec 9, 2017 3:29:16 GMT
No New Posts Modifying Cleo's behaviour

Cleo recognizes that she is experiencing some difficulty maintaining her friendships and decides to approach Charles and Inez for some advice on how she might change her problematic emotions and behaviour. In what ways do you imagine that the advice from these two psychologists might differ?

1 1 Causal and Normative advice
by justin90
Nov 18, 2017 3:37:47 GMT
No New Posts God, spirituality, and Psychology

How would you summarize the points that Damasio wishes to make with respect to God, spirituality and Psychology?

14 20 god and spirituality
by pauline
Dec 4, 2017 0:59:22 GMT
No New Posts Issues for a theory of why people act as they do

In the initial pages of his first chapter, Butt describes several issues that arise when we try to develop a theory of why people act as they do. Choose one of these issues and explain what the problem is. Does Butt seem to have a preferred way of resolving the issue you selected? Explain.

4 4 Issue for a theory of why people act as they do??
by abidapas
Dec 8, 2017 0:41:17 GMT
No New Posts Spinoza and Freud

Damasio alludes on page 275 to a connection between the goals of Spinoza and Freud with respect to reason and emotion. Try to elaborate this connection based on our earlier study of Freud's psychodynamic theory.

4 5 Spinoza and Freud
by ahmad
Nov 26, 2017 22:03:41 GMT
No New Posts Understanding a person, understanding a text

Butt says (p 19) that the concept of hermeneutic understanding suggests that understanding people is like understanding a text. He doesn't explain this simile at this point, but what ideas does it suggest to you? When you try to understand something that you are reading, particularly an article/book that is a bit ambiguous or unclear, what are some of the things that you do to try grasp the meaning? Do any of these strategies seem applicable for trying to understand a person? How so?

6 6 Texts and people
by mvanjaa
Dec 12, 2017 4:02:44 GMT
No New Posts A contented life

Damasio's final chapter considers "the achievement of a contented life." However, most of his book has been about biology. What connection is he proposing between biology, evolution and the achievement of a contented life? How well does Damasio's view fit with your own personal view of how to achieve a contented life? Explain.

14 21 A Contented Life
by Angelika T.
Nov 27, 2017 5:05:40 GMT

November 13

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No New Posts Emotions, feelings, mind and body

Damasio claims (p 184) that his work on emotions and feelings is "especially pertinent to the debate about the mind-body problem." What are the most relevant points/examples he might cite if someone asked him to elaborate the connection he hypothesizes between mind and body.

10 17 Body and mind
by mvanjaa
Dec 12, 2017 4:00:13 GMT
No New Posts The invisible postman

Damasio recounts Chesterton's story about an invisible postman, and he does it in a section titled "The Invisible Body." What is he saying is invisible with respect to the mind-body problem? What is his point in calling attention to this invisibility?

3 3 Ghost for Post
by jkeliar
Nov 18, 2017 4:49:08 GMT
No New Posts Mind and the body-proper

What does Damasio mean by a "foundational image" (p 197)? What role do these foundational images play in his theoretical account of the mind-body problem?

1 1 Mind and the body-proper
by won
Dec 7, 2017 20:32:42 GMT
No New Posts Foundational images

What does Damasio mean by a "foundational image" (p 197)? What role do these foundational images play in his theoretical account of the mind-body problem?

17 20 Foundational images
by mvanjaa
Dec 12, 2017 3:57:08 GMT
No New Posts Lego and the mind

On page 199 Damasio refers to "building blocks" and pieces of Lego. What specifically is he saying is like pieces of Lego? Who is doing the building with these Lego-like pieces? What is the goal of the building, that is, what is being built and why?

4 5 Lego
by Angelika T.
Nov 24, 2017 1:12:46 GMT
No New Posts What does Damasio see in Ophiocoma wendtii?

What is Damasio's purpose in introducing a description of vision in the species Ophiocoma wendtii (p 203)? How does the example relate to the human mind?

4 4 O.Wendtii
by marianne24
Dec 7, 2017 2:39:18 GMT
No New Posts Damasio's body-minded mind

On p 206 Damasio says he doesn't like to write sentences that are laborious to parse, but he gives us one anyway. Explain what he means when he writes, "The brain's body-furnished, body-minded mind is a servant of the whole body."

4 8 Damasio's body-minded mind belief
by Asees
Dec 9, 2017 19:38:14 GMT
No New Posts Mind, sense of self, and likelihood of survival

Damasio claims that the mind and the sense of self are products of evolution. We know from Moghaddam’s discussion of evolution that natural selection chooses for characteristics that enhance the likelihood of survival. Summarize Damasio's view of how these two characteristics increase likelihood of survival in comparison to organisms that do not have these characteristics but do have biological systems capable of neural mapping.

6 6 Mind and survival
by syed0915
Dec 9, 2017 7:41:59 GMT
No New Posts Spinoza and the mind/body problem

Summarize Damasio's view of what is most important/interesting about Spinoza's contributions to an understanding of the mind-body problem.

23 28 Spinoza's Dualism
by tmiric
Dec 8, 2017 0:14:56 GMT
No New Posts Evidence for mind as body image

Damasio writes, "... our mind is made up of images, representations, or thoughts of our own parts of our own body in spontaneous action or in the process of modifications caused by objects in the environment" (pp 213-214). He says in the past most people would not have described the mind this way but that the evidence he has presented in the book supports it. Provide an example or two of the evidence to which he is referring and explain how it supports his idea of mind.

4 6 Evidence for mind as body image
by amrita
Dec 9, 2017 3:15:37 GMT

November 8

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No New Posts Conatus

Damasio has used the term conatus many times. How would you summarize its meaning based on what you have read now? How does this term apply at the different levels that Damasio has discussed -- neurons, organs, brain, person, social groups?

7 7 Conatus
by mvanjaa
Dec 12, 2017 3:53:48 GMT
No New Posts Competition and cooperation

Earlier in the course we discussed the concept of Social Darwinism and the idea that the implication of evolution is that humans are by nature competitive, even that competition with clear winners and losers for resources is good for humans. Damasio speaks of cooperation as the most important result of human evolution. Explain how cooperation could arise in evolution? Is this idea compatible with Social Darwinism or contradictory to it? Is there biological evidence to support either or both?

4 4 Cooperation & Competition as complementary drivers
by omorson
Nov 16, 2017 18:11:09 GMT
No New Posts Damasio's view of free will

Summarize Damasio's position with regard to whether people have free will.

1 1 Damasio's view of free will
by Chi Wu
Nov 11, 2017 1:25:37 GMT
No New Posts What are feelings for?

How would you summarize Damasio's answer to the question he poses, "What are feelings for?"

21 22 feelings
by mvanjaa
Dec 12, 2017 3:50:04 GMT
No New Posts Evolution of somatic marking

How might the somatic marking process help us survive as a species? Where does the somatic marking take place in the body? Are we, or can we sometimes, be aware of somatic marking taking place?

5 5 Somatic marking
by amio83
Nov 18, 2017 5:15:11 GMT
No New Posts Neurobiology and ethical behaviour

Damasio concludes his section on Homeostasis and the Governance of Social Life with the comment that "A formal proposal on the neurobiology of ethical behaviors is outside the scope of this book" (p 169). Yet, he has speculated quite a lot about how biology might be a major factor in the determination of ethical systems. Summarize the basic position he is taking about the biology/ethics relationship.

3 3 Neurobiology and ethical behaviour
by won
Dec 7, 2017 19:37:08 GMT
No New Posts What Damasio means

Choose one of the following quotations from Damasio's Chapter 4 and explain in your own words what you take it to mean and what concepts or evidence he uses to support his idea:
• ... the integrity of emotion and feeling is necessary for normal human social behavior. 155
• The history of our civilization is ... the history of a persuasive effort to extend the best of 'moral sentiments' to wider and wider circles of humanity. 163
• To be sure, the beneficial role of the culture depends, in large measure, on the accuracy of the scientific picture of human beings the culture uses to forge its future path. 164
• ... the World Health Organization, UNESCO, and the much-maligned United Nations. All of these institutions can be seen as part and parcel of the tendency to promote homeostasis on a large scale. 169
• Happiness is not a reward for virtue: it is virtue itself. 175
• It is a matter of discovering the circumstances in which feelings can indeed be an arbiter [of good and evil], and using the reasoned coupling of circumstances and feelings as a guide to human behavior. 179

5 6 Institutions promoting homeostasis
by won
Dec 7, 2017 20:04:46 GMT
No New Posts Somatic marker hypothesis

Damasio is perhaps best known for his somatic marker hypothesis. Explain the basic idea of this hypothesis and describe some of the evidence that Damasio offers in support of it.

8 9 Somaticnmarkers
by chelsea
Nov 27, 2017 1:55:11 GMT
No New Posts Emotion, feeling, and decision-making

Damasio raises the question, "How could emotion and feeling play a role in decision-making?" (p 145). Summarize his answer to this question and provide an example of a more-or-less mundane decision in your own experience that might illustrate Damasio's idea.

21 25 hi
by ahmad
Dec 2, 2017 18:41:14 GMT

November 1

Board Threads Posts Last Post
No New Posts What's conatus got to do with it?

Toward the end of both Chapters 2 and 3, Damasio uses Spinoza's concept of conatus in his discussion of emotions and feelings. What point is he trying to make by his references to conatus? Why does he come back multiple times in a book on psychological and biological processes to this 17th century philosophical concept?

5 5 Conatus
by mvanjaa
Dec 11, 2017 19:29:29 GMT
No New Posts Body states and body maps

Explain what Damasio means by a body state and by a body map. What is the fundamental difference between the two. Describe the basic role that each plays in the production of feelings

40 51 Body state and body map
by abidapas
Nov 30, 2017 21:21:10 GMT
No New Posts Feelings - nothing but biology?

Feeling is no doubt a psychological concept, but does Damasio’s approach seem to eliminate any need to talk about feelings in a psychological way. Is he saying that feelings are just biological processes. Does he leave any room anywhere for non-biological psychological processes in his explanation of feelings?

10 18 feelings? biology?
by Asees
Dec 9, 2017 18:17:03 GMT
No New Posts Homeostasis, conatus, and feelings

Explain what you think Damasio means when he writes, "feelings are based on composite representations of the state of life in the process of being adjusted for survival in a state of optimal operations. The representations range from the myriad components of an organism to the level of the whole organism" (p 130). How do the concepts of homeostasis and conatus relate to the ideas in this quotation?

2 3 Homeostasis, conatus, feeling
by diti86
Nov 11, 2017 2:59:03 GMT
No New Posts Damasio's evidence

Damasio describes several studies which he claims support his conception of the biology of feelings. Summarize one of these studies. Be sure to include whether or not the study has an introspective component.

1 2 Damassio's Evidence
by amrita
Nov 2, 2017 13:51:06 GMT
No New Posts Who can have feelings?

Review the basic requirements that Damasio suggests an organism must meet in order to experience feelings. Briefly explain each of these. How do these requirements illustrate Damasio's connection between feelings and the process of evolution?

9 10 Feelings?
by Asees
Dec 9, 2017 18:11:06 GMT
No New Posts Feelings distinct from emotions?

Summarize your sense of why Damasio thinks it valuable to make a distinction between emotions (Ch 2) and feelings (Ch 3). Has he convinced you that emotion comes before feeling? Explain. What do you think he means when he says (p 111) that feeling is not a passive process?

8 16 Feelings vs emotions
by sandali
Nov 13, 2017 18:02:37 GMT
No New Posts Feelings - Damasio's hypothesis

Explain in more detail Damasio's hypothesis about what a feeling is (p. 86) - for example elaborate the hypothesis with examples of what is meant by "perception", "certain state of the body", "certain mode of thinking", etc.

3 3 Damasio's hypothesis
by zee
Nov 6, 2017 5:08:49 GMT
No New Posts Renewing the feeling

Damasio describes several studies which he claims support his conception of the biology of feelings. Summarize one of these studies. Be sure to include whether or not the study has an introspective component.

1 1 Renewing the feeling
by victancredi17
Nov 1, 2017 17:33:04 GMT
No New Posts Lab recreation of emotion

One piece of research that Damasio describes involves 40 people attempting to recreate a previous deeply felt emotional experience. In their laboratory recreation, what were the key links in the biological chain that led to their renewed feelings? What is the special significance of Damasio's observation that skin conductance changed for these people before they raised their hand to say that they were beginning to experience the emotion?

1 1 Lab Recreation of Emotion
by ambercyw
Nov 3, 2017 16:54:57 GMT

October 30

Board Threads Posts Last Post
No New Posts Whistle a Happy Tune

Explain what point Damasio is making by reference (p. 71) to the lyrics of the Rodgers and Hammerstein song, I Whistle a Happy Tune? Does he seem to be arguing that the emotion-control strategy suggested by the lyrics is viable? Does he offer any evidence that it could actually work?

8 13 Whistle a happy tune
by mvanjaa
Dec 11, 2017 19:21:57 GMT
No New Posts Are emotions innate?

Damasio raises the question of whether emotions are innate. His answer isn't a simple yes or no. Summarize his response.

36 51 Yes and no
by mvanjaa
Dec 11, 2017 19:25:47 GMT
No New Posts Emotion and learning

Is Damasio open to the idea that learning plays a role in emotion? Explain your answer including an example.

4 4 learning and emotions
by elenid
Nov 4, 2017 3:03:28 GMT
No New Posts Mood and emotion

From Damasio's point of view how does the concept of mood differ from the concepts of emotion and feeling? Give an example of a mood and explain what emotions or feelings you think would be associated with it.

19 29 Mood and Emotion
by abidapas
Dec 2, 2017 2:42:06 GMT
No New Posts The history of evolution

In relation to his tree image for emotions, Damasio writes, “The history of evolution is written all over that tree” (p. 38). Explain what he means by this statement and why it is important with respect to his view of emotions.

5 8 Evolution for emotion
by amrita
Nov 6, 2017 19:22:43 GMT
No New Posts Emotionally competent stimuli

Provide a list of emotionally competent stimuli for at least three of the primary emotions (p. 44). For each example indicate whether you think the ECT is innately connected to the emotion or learned by association.

4 5 Emotionally competent stimuli
by jahmald98
Nov 25, 2017 20:02:39 GMT
No New Posts Sudden tears

Briefly summarize the case of the 65-year-old Parkinson's syndrome patient who broke into tears during the neurological treatment she was receiving. What point is Damasio seeking to make about emotion and feelings by means of this case? What evidence is he relying on in making this point?

3 4 Sudden tear
by amio83
Nov 11, 2017 2:53:38 GMT
No New Posts A. K. and C.

Briefly summarize the case of A. K. or the case of Patient C. and indicate what point Damasio is seeking to make about emotion and feelings by means of this case. What evidence in the case is he relying on in making this point?

2 2 Patient A.K.
by justin90
Nov 4, 2017 2:43:00 GMT
No New Posts In the beginning was emotion

Damasio concludes Chapter 2 with the sentence, "In the beginning was emotion, but at the beginning of emotion was action." Explain what he means by this sentence and why he might have thought it a fitting conclusion to the chapter.

5 6 In the beginning there was emotion
by jkeliar
Nov 4, 2017 3:31:43 GMT

October 25

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No New Posts Social construction in Moghaddam's earlier chapters

The idea of social construction has appeared several times in the course prior to our reading of Moghaddam’s chapter on this topic. Review all the course material considered to date and list a few examples of ways in which the idea of social construction has been used. Describe how Moghaddam’s discussion of this final “great idea” enhances your understanding of the material previously presented.

3 3 Social Construction
by kendratp
Nov 5, 2017 23:01:05 GMT
No New Posts Research methods and social construction

Do you think Psychologists with a social constructionist approach would be sympathetic, unsympathetic or neutral with respect to the use of idiographic research methods (as compared to nomothetic methods)? Explain.

2 3 Social constructionist view on idiographic methods
by amrita
Nov 2, 2017 13:55:16 GMT
No New Posts Concepts related to social construction

Describe how the concept of social constructionism is related to the concepts of reductionism and individualism in the study of psychological phenomena?

10 12 social constructionism
by marialexandra
Nov 8, 2017 17:42:56 GMT
No New Posts Language as constructive

What does Moghaddam mean when he says that “language is recognized as not just descriptive, but constructive” by social constructionists? Can you give an example of how language might be constructive?

22 32 hi
by Asees
Dec 10, 2017 0:00:21 GMT
No New Posts Social construction and agency

Summarize your understanding of the relationship between the concept of social construction on the one hand and the concepts of agency, meaning systems, and normative science on the other.

7 9 Social construction & agency
by mvanjaa
Dec 11, 2017 19:02:06 GMT
No New Posts Normative and causal explanations

Is a social constructionist more likely to provide a normative explanation or a causal explanation of a psychological phenomenon? Why? Illustrate by choosing a psychological phenomenon and suggesting the kind of explanation for it that a social constructionist might give.

7 8 Social construction & Normative science
by mvanjaa
Dec 11, 2017 19:15:31 GMT
No New Posts Social construction and inter-group conflict

What does it mean to say that the basis of inter-group conflict in Western society (race and religion, for example) is a social construction? Why is the possibility that the conflict has a socially constructed foundation important for Psychology?

3 5 Social construction and inter-group conflict
by Ali
Nov 1, 2017 0:56:20 GMT
No New Posts Social construction and discourse

Describe why a Psychologist with a social constructionist approach would have more interest in studying discourse (discussion, conversation within social groups) than Psychologists with other orientations would have.

6 10 Discourse
by chelsea
Nov 9, 2017 0:00:04 GMT

October 23

Board Threads Posts Last Post
No New Posts Propositions about identity

Moghaddam says, “The central focus of multicultural psychology is identity” (282) and “At the heart of multicultural psychology are a number of propositions about identity” (281). Describe a few of these propositions about identity and what you understand them to mean in the context of Psychology.

2 3 Propositions about identity
by Ali
Nov 1, 2017 1:02:08 GMT
No New Posts How do assimilation and multiculturalism policies matter for Psychology?

What does Moghaddam view as the most important differences between assimilation policies and multiculturalism policies so far as psychological variables such as identity are concerned?

4 5 Assimilation and Multiculturalism
by jahmald98
Nov 25, 2017 19:18:42 GMT
No New Posts Canada's multiculturalism

Canada was founded on the basis of balance and dialogue among three very different peoples – Native, English and French. Canada’s current multiculturalism policy is a natural outgrowth of this founding – diverse peoples maintaining a strong sense of cultural identity within a framework that is supportive of all and encouraging of dialogue as the means to make decisions and maintain national unity. Based on Moghaddam’s description of the psychological phenomena relevant to functioning in a multicultural environment, would you say that he is optimistic or pessimistic about the long-term social benefits of Canada’s multiculturalism policy? Why?

2 2 Canadian multiculturalism is not relativistic
by rollerk
Oct 27, 2017 15:20:35 GMT
No New Posts Identity and conformity

Moghaddam tells us (p288) that social identity theory takes the position that “humans are motivated to achieve a social identity that is both positive and distinct.” However, in Chapter 15 he tells us that humans readily conform to group norms. In your view are the ideas associated with social identity theory contradictory to the ones associated with the conformity concept, or are they compatible? Explain.

6 10 identity and conformity
by chelsea
Dec 1, 2017 23:07:45 GMT
No New Posts Comparing forms of assimilation

At the psychological level (behaviour, thoughts, emotions of individuals) what differences would you expect to observe among people in a nation where minority assimilation was taking place and one where melting-pot assimilation was taking place? Explain the basis for your expectations.

3 6 forms of assimilation
by Angelika T.
Oct 29, 2017 16:59:06 GMT
No New Posts Cultural relativism and universal rights

What is psychological about the conflict Moghaddam sets up between cultural relativism and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights?

4 4,455 Conflict between cultural relativism and UDHR
by icibirso
Sept 7, 2019 23:08:10 GMT
No New Posts The good copy problem

What is the psychological problem that Moghaddam calls by the name “good copy problem”? Would this problem be less likely to occur in a multiculturally oriented society? Why?

19 23 good copy problem
by pauline12
Dec 12, 2017 0:23:46 GMT
No New Posts Sudden awareness of norms when traveling

We are often unaware of the cultural norms of our own society until we visit another country. When you first visited another country did you have any experience that suddenly made you aware of a norm you hadn’t realized you held? Describe this experience and the norm involved.

20 23 Smoking&Drinking
by mvanjaa
Dec 11, 2017 18:47:12 GMT
No New Posts Culture is a result of evolution

What do evolutionary psychologists have in mind when they say that “culture itself is a result of evolution” (M297)? Describe how it is possible for genes and culture to affect each other.

5 5 Culture As a Result of Evolution
by tanya
Oct 28, 2017 2:32:30 GMT
No New Posts Genes as causes of psychological phenomena

Moghaddam says that a primary claim of evolutionary psychology is that there is a “genetic basis for behaviour and mental life” (296). List one or more aspects of behaviour or mental life that we have considered in the course and for which it has been suggested that there may be a genetic basis for this aspect. For each of these describe any evidence we have considered that suggests the basis is cultural rather than (or as well as) genetic.

3 4 Genes as causes of psychological phenomena
by kendratp
Nov 5, 2017 20:45:18 GMT

October 18

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No New Posts Your responses to authority

Have you ever been in a situation where an authority told you to do something that you thought would be harmful to or inappropriate for others? What kind of considerations went through your mind as you considered whether or not to obey? What would you say were the primary determiners of the behaviour you eventually chose?

16 17 Authoritarianism
by chelsea
Dec 1, 2017 23:29:47 GMT
No New Posts Zimbardo prison simulation

How are norms involved in the Zimbardo prison research? How is obedience involved? Would you say that any of the behaviour observed in the Zimbardo study was predictable from the Asch conformity studies or the Milgram obedience research? Explain.

10 20 Zimbardo Prison Simulation
by Asees
Nov 6, 2017 14:08:00 GMT
No New Posts Conforming to a minority position

What are the primary suggestions that Moghaddam gives for people who are in a minority position and wish to bring others to conform to their way of thinking or acting? Can you think of an example of a minority position becoming a majority position? In your example does it seem that the shift was related to the kind of approach suggested by Moghaddam?

5 6 conf
by zee
Oct 28, 2017 23:26:39 GMT
No New Posts Was the Milgram study an experiment?

Is the Milgram research technically an experiment? If so, what are the independent variables that are studied? Is the Zimbardo prison research an experiment? If so, what are the independent variables that are studied? Dependent variables? Controls?

4 6 Milgram and Zimbardo
by amrita
Oct 25, 2017 20:19:38 GMT
No New Posts Extreme male brain

The idea of an “extreme male brain” is connected with the idea that women are much more likely than men to experience and demonstrate empathy. Do you agree that such a difference with respect to empathy actually exists? What suggestions can you offer for how a study might be done to determine whether or not males and females differ with respect to empathy? If a difference were demonstrated to exist, what are some cultural mechanisms that might be studied as possible explanations for the difference?

3 4 My brain, your brain, everyones brains!
by mizumi
Nov 16, 2017 19:04:35 GMT
No New Posts Sex and gender

What is the difference between the concept of sex and the concept of gender? What is the relevance of this distinction to Psychologists? What does it mean to say that “gender identities are constructed” (M p264)?

34 45 Sex and gender
by mvanjaa
Dec 11, 2017 18:41:09 GMT
No New Posts What is anti-relativist about Feminist Psychology?

What does Moghaddam mean when he says that Feminist Psychology takes an anti-relativist position? Does it seem appropriate to you for a Psychologist to take an anti-relativist position? Why?

2 2 Feminist Psychology is Anti-relativist
by cherise
Oct 24, 2017 20:19:28 GMT
No New Posts Is Psychology politically neutral?

Moghaddam (p267) questions whether it is true that traditional Psychology is politically neutral. Can you think of any examples have we considered earlier in the course that suggest that traditional Psychology may sometimes hold political biases?

5 6 bias in psychology
by chelsea
Dec 1, 2017 23:12:27 GMT
No New Posts Nature, nurture, and gender differences

With respect to gender differences, there is debate – as in many other areas of Psychology – about the relative influence of nature and nurture. What evidence does Moghaddam present relevant to this topic in his Feminist Psychology chapter? Does he seem to favour one or the other in his discussion? Explain.

2 2 nature, nurture and gender differences
by pauline12
Dec 12, 2017 1:18:40 GMT

October 16

Board Threads Posts Last Post
No New Posts Conforming to a minority

What are the primary suggestions that Moghaddam gives for people who are in a minority position and wish to bring others to conform to their way of thinking or acting? What examples can you provide of how a group with a minority position succeeded in gaining the conformity of many from the majority?

10 10 Minority influence
by chelsea
Dec 1, 2017 23:17:34 GMT
No New Posts Conversion and compliance

Explain what Moscovici means by his distinction between conversion and compliance. Can you give examples of situations in which you have just complied with the behaviour of a group and ones in which you actually converted to the behaviour of a group?

7 7 Influening to convert or Forcing to Comply
by cherise
Oct 23, 2017 19:22:05 GMT
No New Posts Effects of violating norms

How does the discomfort of Milgram’s students engaged in his subway research project demonstrate the importance of norms in human behaviour? Can you provide an example of some other situation that a researcher might use in place of the subway requests and that might show similar results with respect to norms?

9 10 norms
by iannizzm
Dec 1, 2017 21:59:19 GMT
No New Posts Conformity, pressure, and power

Provide an example from your high school days of a situation where you felt the need to conform in some way. What was the source of this feeling? What did you gain by conforming, or what did you lose by not conforming in the situation? Would you say that any kind of power was involved? Explain.

18 21 Conformity, Pressure and Power
by jahmald98
Nov 25, 2017 18:32:23 GMT
No New Posts Personality and situations in conformity and obedience

Do you think that one’s decision to conform to a particular norm of society is more a matter of personality, or more a matter of the particular social situation in which one finds oneself? Why? Do you think the same is true of a decision not to conform? Do you think the same is true of a decision to obey or not obey the instruction of a superior? Explain.

5 5 situation and personality
by marialexandra
Nov 8, 2017 17:12:24 GMT
No New Posts Application of ideas about the self

Choose one of the following concepts and use it to analyze an event in your life or the life of someone you know.

a) The dramaturgical model of the self,
b) The looking-glass self,
c) Posttraumatic growth.

5 5 The Dramaturgical model of the self
by pauline12
Dec 12, 2017 18:54:11 GMT
No New Posts Self as social construction

Based on Moghaddam’s chapter as a whole to what extent would you say that he views the notion of self to be a social construction? What are some examples of how the self is socially constructed? What are some possible universal elements of self?

4 4 self as a social construction
by mvanjaa
Nov 16, 2017 2:03:26 GMT
No New Posts Reliability and validity of rouge test

Describe the logic behind the “rouge test” and the purposes for which it has been used by psychologists. What would it mean to say that the test was reliable and valid? Can you see any reasons to suspect that it might lack either reliability or validity?

12 12 The rouge test
by shailaz
Nov 28, 2017 2:07:13 GMT
No New Posts Self-perceptions

Moghaddam (p. 222) raises the possibility “that our self-perceptions have social origins and that they are arrived at in relativistic terms.” Explain what you think this statement means and give some examples from your personal experience that seem to be consistent with it.

8 8 Self perception
by iannizzm
Oct 20, 2017 3:36:59 GMT
No New Posts Multiple selves?

What examples can you provide in support of the following statement? 


"Because our modern society is very complex we are forced as individuals to take on multiple selves with different beliefs, values and goals depending on the situations in which we find ourselves at different times."

Can you provide any examples that contradict it? In general, are you more inclined to favour the idea of a unitary view of self or to favour the idea of a multiple view of self? Why?

9 10 Multiple selves
by mvanjaa
Nov 16, 2017 1:58:32 GMT

October 11

Board Threads Posts Last Post
No New Posts Reliability and validity in measuring personality traits

A. Choose one of the three methods of personality assessment listed below and indicate what factors might limit its reliability and validity.
B. If you had to argue for the superiority of one of these methods over the others, which one would you choose and why?
1. self reports from the persons being assessed
2. reports from close friends and relatives of the person being assessed
3. observations of the person being assessed by a trained observer.

37 60 Self reports
by Asees
Dec 9, 2017 19:23:26 GMT
No New Posts Consistent traits in your personality?

The personality construct is based on the idea that individuals are relatively stable with respect to certain characteristics across most situations. Consult the list of Cattell’s 16 Personality Factors, then describe to what extent you regard your own behaviour as consistent with respect to these factors? Describe how your behaviour changes across contexts for at least one of these factors.

11 20 My Personality Compared to Cattell's 16 Factors
by Asees
Dec 9, 2017 19:30:53 GMT
No New Posts Stability of personality across decades

A. Suppose that a personality test such as Cattell’s 16 PF or Eysenck’s EPQ were given to you at ages 10, 20, 30, and every ten years for the remainder of your life. Do you think that the results of the test would be more or less the same each time?

B. Speak to someone in their 40’s or older and ask them how stable their personality has been over their lifetime. In those cases where you or your interviewee indicates large changes, to what factors is the change attributed?

10 17 Personality with decades
by abidapas
Nov 16, 2017 20:29:55 GMT
No New Posts Idiographic and nomothetic goals

What are the primary distinctions between an idiographic approach to studying personality and a nomothetic one? What are the strengths and weaknesses of each approach? Is one approach more atomistic than the other? Is one more individualist than the other? Is one more reductionist than the other? Explain.

13 17 idiographic and nomothetic
by pauline12
Dec 12, 2017 19:28:09 GMT

October 2

Board Threads Posts Last Post
No New Posts Biological and social aspects of attachment

Moghaddam says (p170) that Bowlby’s idea of attachment attended to both biological and social aspects of mother-infant interaction. Provide examples of each of these aspects from Moghaddam’s description of the work. Based on your understanding of the attachment ideas of Lorenz, Harlow and Ainsworth, would you say that these ideas also combine both biological and social aspects? Explain.

2 2 Biological and Social implications of Attachment
by syed0915
Dec 7, 2017 19:12:16 GMT
No New Posts Intersubjectivity

Explain what is meant by the concept of intersubjectivity (as used by Moghaddam, p166) and what the concept has to do with attachment theories.

4 7 intersubjectivity
by mikka
Dec 9, 2017 17:36:12 GMT
No New Posts Laboratory studies of attachment

Suppose that you were going to do a laboratory study of some aspect of the attachment phenomenon. Would attachment work better as an independent variable or as a dependent variable (or both)? What are some possible operational definitions of attachment that you might be able to use?

1 2 Dependent Variable: Attachment
by Angelika T.
Oct 6, 2017 16:38:12 GMT
No New Posts Harlow and the Behaviourists

Harlow raised infant monkeys in the presence of wire mothers (that provided food) and cloth mothers (that did not). What result would behaviourists predict from these monkeys when they were frightened? Why would they expect this? Why is the actual result damaging to the behaviourist view of learning and behaviour?

28 38 Monkey test
by mvanjaa
Nov 16, 2017 1:31:51 GMT
No New Posts Attachment and schema

Describe how the attachment process might affect the formation of schema in young children and how the schema formed might influence subsequent thinking and behaviour.

7 7 Attachment and schema
by Diti
Oct 14, 2017 2:52:38 GMT
No New Posts Developmental Psychology concepts - 1 Viewing

Identify what is meant by at least one of the following concepts and explain its importance in the study of Developmental Psychology:
a. Strange situation b. Scaffolding c. Ideal forms

20 22 Strange Situation
by abidapas
Nov 16, 2017 20:14:27 GMT
No New Posts Frustration-aggression hypothesis

Summarize the main idea of the frustration-aggression hypothesis and describe any evidence presented by Moghaddam for or against it.

6 6 Theory
by marianne24
Oct 11, 2017 6:05:26 GMT
No New Posts What is pessimistic about Freud?

Moghaddam makes several references in his book to the “pessimistic” theory of Freud. What is pessimistic about Freud’s theory in general and about his inter-group psychology in particular?

5 6 pessimistic view of Freud
by chelsea
Dec 1, 2017 23:51:59 GMT
No New Posts Displaced aggression - biology and learning

Have you ever been angry with someone more powerful than yourself (for example, an employer, a parent, a teacher …), been afraid to act aggressively toward them directly, but found yourself engaging in indirect aggression toward that person? Do you think such a phenomena is biologically based and bound to occur, or is it possibly a learned phenomena and we could also learn to avoid acting in these indirect aggressive ways?

4 4 displaced aggression
by pauline12
Dec 12, 2017 20:31:16 GMT
No New Posts In-group cohesion

Explain how displaced aggression might be used to foster in-group cohesion and describe an historical situation (other than those used in the text) or a personal situation that might provide an example of this phenomenon.

8 9 Displaced aggression and basket ball players
by syed0915
Dec 8, 2017 21:33:06 GMT

September 27

Board Threads Posts Last Post
No New Posts Examples of schema

One example of schema studied by Piaget is the grasping schema. Many objects in the child’s environment are assimilated to the grasping schema (rather than to the sucking schema or kicking schema), and the grasping schema accommodates to allow grasping of objects in shapes and sizes that have not been experienced before. Provide an example of a schema that an adult might have. Provide examples of situations where objects or ideas would be assimilated to this schema and examples of situations in which the schema might accommodate.

17 23 Example of Schema
by syed0915
Dec 3, 2017 0:13:47 GMT
No New Posts Individual and social in stage models

Moghaddam says that Western Psychologists focus primarily on the individualist features of stage models. Explain what he means by this comment. In particular, explain what it would mean to focus on the individual with respect to a stage. What would it mean to include more consideration of the social environment?

2 2 individualist stage models vs collaborative environment
by cherise
Oct 23, 2017 18:12:42 GMT
No New Posts Is the Behaviourist model of learning a stage model?

Behaviourists argue that child development proceeds according to the laws of learning – children grow in knowledge and skill through conditioning processes in their environment. Explain why this behaviourist description does not fit into Moghaddam’s chapter on stages of development?

4 4 Behaviourists vs Moghaddam
by ari
Sept 29, 2017 17:32:16 GMT
No New Posts Zone of proximal development

What would it mean to say that a concept or skill that you had not yet learned was in your zone of proximal development (ZPD)? Can you give an example from your past school experience of a situation in which either:
- a teacher appropriately chose a task within your ZPD to work on with you, or
- a teacher inappropriately chose a task for you that was above or below your ZPD?

18 19 ZPD
by syed0915
Dec 3, 2017 0:04:05 GMT
No New Posts Environment for Vygotsky and for Behaviourists

How does Vygotsky’s notion of the environment differ from that of a behaviourist who is seeking to use rewards and punishments to promote learning through conditioning?

5 5 Behaviorists vs Vygotsky
by irynay
Sept 30, 2017 3:28:33 GMT
No New Posts Piaget, Vygotsky and reductionism

The word “reductionist” often refer to theories that search for the biological bases of behaviour. From what you know of Piaget and Vygotsky’s theories, to what extent would it be appropriate to label either of them biological reductionist? Explain your reasons.

2 3 Reductionism
by Chi Wu
Sept 30, 2017 3:11:00 GMT
No New Posts Biology and meaning in the schema concept

Summarize the idea of schema as associated with Bartlett (M p115) and Piaget (M p136). In what way does schema seem to be a biological concept and in what way is it a meaning system concept?

2 2 Schema- Barlett and Piaget
by mizumi
Sept 29, 2017 17:08:57 GMT
No New Posts Collaborative construction

Moghaddam says that Vygotsky’s understanding of “social” emphasizes collaborative construction. What are some examples of collaborative construction from your experience?

4 4 Collaborative Contruction
by jkeliar
Sept 30, 2017 2:38:56 GMT
No New Posts The value of play

Explain what Moghaddam means when he says, “play … allows children to extend themselves developmentally, to act above their age, to do things as part of a collectivity which they are individually too young to do” (p 158). Can you give an example of such play from your own experience?

27 29 Play
by mikka
Dec 9, 2017 17:21:34 GMT
No New Posts Vygotsky's concept of the social

Explain in what way Vygotsky’s concept of the social and of the environment involves meaning systems (beliefs, values, expectations, norms, etc.).

8 8 Voygosky
by kavita
Oct 11, 2017 15:58:03 GMT

September 25

Board Threads Posts Last Post
No New Posts Evidence for nurture in intelligence

Moghaddam presents several arguments supporting the idea that intellectual ability is strongly influenced by environment or culture. Summarize the argument that you find most convincing and explain why it impresses you.

8 10 Intelligence
by mvanjaa
Nov 16, 2017 1:18:19 GMT
No New Posts Galton's evidence for heredity

Galton examined his society and saw that many of the most eminent people came from just a small number of different families. Why is this observation insufficient evidence to conclude that intelligence is an inherited (native) ability rather than a product of environmental influences?

6 9 Galton's Insufficient Evidence for Heredity
by Ali
Oct 1, 2017 18:14:00 GMT
No New Posts Nature, nurture, and twins

How does the study of twins help us understand the nature-nurture controversy with respect to intelligence better?

21 24 nature vs. nurture
by kavita
Oct 11, 2017 15:51:38 GMT
No New Posts Eugenics and evolution

Explain what is meant by the idea of eugenics and why most people today find the concept offensive. How is it linked to the theory of evolution?

13 21 Eugenics
by mikka
Dec 9, 2017 16:50:39 GMT
No New Posts Emotional intelligence

Some psychologists have proposed that we should elaborate a concept of “emotional intelligence” in the same way that we now think about analytical intelligence. If you were advising these psychologists, what characteristics would you advise them to look for in order to identify someone who was emotionally intelligent? Do you think the elements of emotional intelligence that you have described are more likely to be innate characteristics or learned ones?

7 9 Emotional Intelligence
by chelsea
Dec 2, 2017 0:18:16 GMT
No New Posts Intelligence and immigration

Many York students moved to Canada as young children when their parents immigrated here. Suppose these students and their parents were all asked to take an intelligence test such as the Stanford-Binet today. What are some reasons that the students might do better than their parents even though their actual abilities are pretty much the same? Why would such a result be important in the nature-nurture debate?

10 11 mass intelligence testing
by negin94
Sept 30, 2017 18:32:13 GMT
No New Posts What is a schema?

Describe what Bartlett means by schema and provide an example of schema from your own experience. What makes schema a cognitive concept rather than a behaviourist one?

16 20 Schema
by sina
Dec 16, 2017 2:35:34 GMT
No New Posts Chomsky's view of language

Summarize Chomsky’s view of language as presented by Moghaddam and explain why it is more consistent with a cognitive approach to Psychology than with a behaviourist one.

9 10 Chomsky
by syed0915
Dec 2, 2017 23:55:07 GMT
No New Posts TOTE units

Provide an example of an everyday purposive behaviour that might be analyzed into a set of “TOTE units” organized by means of a “plan.” List some units that would be included.

8 10 Washing dirt off your hands
by justin90
Sept 29, 2017 22:45:55 GMT

September 20

Board Threads Posts Last Post
No New Posts Moghaddam's sympathies with biological reductionism

Some students of the brain seem to claim that all psychological phenomena — hopes, fears, plans, virtuous behaviour and decadent, etc. — are explainable in terms of brain function. They suggest that all these phenomena will eventually be controllable through surgical and drug interventions. Does Moghaddam seem sympathetic with this view or skeptical about it? Explain what comments he makes that lead you to see him as supportive or skeptical of such a goal.

3 5 hi
by ahmad
Sept 22, 2017 0:54:16 GMT
No New Posts Components of classical conditioning

A common laboratory procedure for classical conditioning involves directing a puff of air into the eye of an immobilized rabbit. The automatic response to this stimulus is an eyeblink. In the conditioning procedure, a tone is sounded just prior to delivering the puff of air. Identify the CS, CR, UCS and UCR in this situation. Suppose you wanted to undo the conditioning; use the same terminology to describe how you might go about trying to do this.

32 43 Classical Conditioning
by syed0915
Dec 2, 2017 23:27:26 GMT
No New Posts Psychology's laws

Describe a situation in which it seems plausible to explain someone’s behaviour as an example of the law of effect. Do the same for the law of exercise. Does it seem to you that these laws are like the law of gravity and Boyle’s law which cannot be violated; or are they better conceptualized as patterns of behaviour that are regularly, but not always, observed? Explain.

7 8 law of effect and law of exercise.
by marialexandra
Sept 25, 2017 14:10:56 GMT
No New Posts Professor Kuo's kittens

Moghaddam tells us that one research goal of the Chinese Psychologist Kuo was to demonstrate the malleability of how kittens interact with rats. Why would this goal be of any interest to a behaviourist Psychologist? Kuo also opposed using instincts as an explanation for behaviour. Do you think that most other behaviourist psychologists probably agreed with Kuo? Explain why.

2 3 Kuo's kittens
by Angelika T.
Sept 24, 2017 17:26:37 GMT
No New Posts Everyday examples of operant conditioning

Provide an example of an everyday situation not mentioned by our authors that you think could be analyzed as an example of operant conditioning. What is the behaviour (the operant) being conditioned? What is the reward or negative stimulus involved? Does the situation involve positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, or punishment? Do you agree that most learning is a product of conditioning rather than a product of cognitive process that take place in the situation?

14 15 Operant Conditioning
by abidapas
Nov 16, 2017 16:36:28 GMT
No New Posts Little Albert

Almost every Introductory Psychology textbook written in the last 50 years mentions Watson’s work with the infant Albert. Why? What is the theoretical point made by this work that is so important that virtually every textbook author would consider it essential for newcomers in the field to know about it?

24 30 Little Albert
by sina
Dec 16, 2017 2:24:16 GMT
No New Posts Classical conditioning in therapy

Describe how classical conditioning principles might be used to create an aversion therapy program to eliminate one’s excessive drinking behaviour. How are classical conditioning principles involved in the desensitization therapies (therapies designed to eliminate phobias of snakes, for example)?

8 9 classical conditioning
by mvanjaa
Nov 16, 2017 1:09:04 GMT
No New Posts Walden II

Is your initial reaction to Skinner’s vision of the ideal society as he outlined it in Walden II generally favourable or unfavourable? Why? What points could be made in support of his ideal and the suggestions he makes for achieving it? What points could be made in opposition?

1 1 Walden II: The Ideal of a Non-Moralistic Society
by rollerk
Sept 22, 2017 19:42:58 GMT
No New Posts Localization in the brain

What is meant by the idea that psychological functions might be localized in the brain? How does the work of each of the following relate to the question of whether or not the brain shows localization of function?
Lashley,
Penfield,
McConnell (the person who did the flatworm studies described in the text)

1 1 Localization in the Brain
by ambercyw
Sept 20, 2017 23:01:54 GMT

September 18

Board Threads Posts Last Post
No New Posts Dirty socks

One day two young athletes each play much better than usual in a game. After the game, both children refuse to allow their parents to wash their socks or underwear. They are afraid that the soap and water will remove the good luck of the day. One set of parents complies; the other does not. In their next games, the first child does quite well again, but the other child plays poorly. Could the placebo effect help explain their performance in the second game? Explain why you think the placebo effect is or is not a good way to analyze the situation.

30 34 Dirty Socks
by syed0915
Dec 2, 2017 23:07:01 GMT
No New Posts Double blind procedure and the placebo effect

Explain how the double-blind procedure works in drug treatment studies. What kind of variables is the procedure designed to control for? How is the topic of double-blind procedure related to the topic of placebo effect?

7 7 Double-blind Procedure
by syed0915
Dec 8, 2017 7:07:20 GMT
No New Posts Therapy and placebo

Jerome Frank and other psychologists say that therapy helps people feel better by convincing them to change the way they view the world around them, particularly by convincing them to change the meaning of the experiences that are bothering them. Do you agree that emotions like sadness, regret, jealousy, anger, etc. can be changed in this way? Can you describe a situation in your own life when you helped yourself feel better by changing the meaning you gave to events or people in your life?

6 6 My experience
by syed0915
Dec 8, 2017 6:59:41 GMT
No New Posts Home field advantage

In many team sports it seems that a team plays better when the game takes place in their local city, rather than in the city of their opponent. Discuss whether or not you think the meaning system model of the placebo effect applies well to this situation and why it does or does not apply.

7 10 No such thing
by syed0915
Dec 8, 2017 5:57:44 GMT
No New Posts My placebo experiences

What are some ways in which parents make use of the placebo effect to help their children feel better? Describe a situation in which you think you experienced the placebo effect personally? What beliefs and values were involved in making the placebo effective?

30 35 Oatmeal and Popeye
by syed0915
Dec 8, 2017 5:41:48 GMT
No New Posts Conflict and the Freudian unconscious

What role does conflict play in the Freudian unconscious? What is the source of this conflict, and what are some of the possible negative and positive outcomes to which the conflict can lead?

6 8 Id Ego Superego
by syed0915
Dec 8, 2017 5:34:59 GMT
No New Posts The unconscious in the art world

Reflect on films you have seen and your past study of literature. What examples can you recall of stories in which unconscious processes are a prominent feature? Why do you think the unconscious is so readily taken up by film and literary critics, but treated rather skeptically by academic psychologists?

4 5 Crime and Punishment
by miluska7
Sept 23, 2017 1:40:47 GMT
No New Posts Id, Ego, Superego

Describe the role played by each of the component parts that Freud hypothesized to be present in the mind - the id, the ego, and the superego

13 14 Id,Ego, Super Ego
by syed0915
Dec 2, 2017 22:58:44 GMT
No New Posts Reconstruction of memory

What do you think Loftus means when she says that we reconstruct events rather than repress them? How do her examples regarding suggestibility and eyewitness testimony relate to the idea of reconstructing an event when we try to remember it?

5 6 Memory Reconstruction
by syed0915
Dec 8, 2017 5:22:12 GMT

September 13

Board Threads Posts Last Post
No New Posts In or out? Causal or normative?

Suppose you were to become a Psychologist studying thinking, emotion or some other broad psychological phenomenon. Do you think your preference would be to study this phenomenon by “working in”, or would you prefer to study it by “working out”? Do you think your preference would be to take a causal science approach to studying the phenomenon, or would you prefer to take a normative science approach? Explain your reasons.

27 28 Working IN/OUT
by sina
Dec 16, 2017 2:20:17 GMT
No New Posts Shakespeare - causal or normative?

Shakespeare was not a psychologist, but he was a keen observer of human behaviour. He has Hamlet say in one scene, “there is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so.” Does Shakespeare, through Hamlet in this case, seem to be taking a causal science view or a normative science view of life?

11 12 Cause and effect
by syed0915
Dec 8, 2017 5:12:31 GMT
No New Posts Reductionism

Some Psychologists believe that eventually it will be possible to explain all psychological phenomena in terms of biology (that Psychology will be “reduced” to Biology). Are you inclined to agree with this position, or do you think it will never be possible to explain Psychology on the basis of Biology alone? Explain your reasons.

29 32 Harmony
by syed0915
Dec 8, 2017 5:04:50 GMT
No New Posts Reliability and validity

What would it mean to say that you had a bathroom scale that was extremely reliable but not valid?
-- Could you have a scale that was valid but not reliable? Why or why not?
-- Moghaddam says that a laboratory study might have good reliability and good internal validity but still lack external validity. What does he mean by this?
-- Could the same be said for an interview or survey? Explain

14 14 Validity vs. reliability
by syed0915
Dec 8, 2017 4:50:58 GMT
No New Posts Carriers of meaning systems

Moghaddam introduces the idea of “carriers” within meaning systems as a suggestion for why certain behaviour patterns might occur or persist over time (even when people have considerable degrees of freedom about how to behave). Meaning systems can often be summarized in terms of certain beliefs and values, and these are sometimes symbolized by carriers. Propose an example of something you think might constitute a meaning system and an example of a carrier of this meaning system.

8 8 Robert E. Lee and The confederate flag
by syed0915
Dec 8, 2017 4:39:50 GMT
No New Posts Identifying variables

A researcher is interested in depression and the effectiveness of various treatments for depression. She decides to randomly assign each of 30 people seeking assistance with depression to one of three treatments -- behaviour modification, cognitive behavioural therapy, or rational-emotive therapy. Prior to treatment she interviews each person and rates the severity of the depression on a scale from one to ten. She repeats the interview and rating after 12 weeks of treatment. What are the relevant variables in this study? Which ones are independent and which are dependent? Are there variables that will have to be controlled in this study? What are they and how might they be controlled? Is this an example of cause and effect research, or is it normative research?

5 5 Variables of depression
by syed0915
Dec 8, 2017 4:31:22 GMT
No New Posts Defining and controlling variables

Suppose you were a Psychologist and decided to study the specific emotion of jealousy. What are some possible ways that you might “operationalize” the concept of jealousy?
-- If you chose to do an experiment on jealousy, what are some independent and dependent variables that you might use in your study?
-- Are there any variables that might have to be controlled?
-- Do you think that a laboratory experiment would be the best method for studying jealousy, or do you think observation or interviews might be better? Explain.

2 3 Variables
by abidapas
Dec 9, 2017 15:22:29 GMT
No New Posts Degrees of freedom

Give an example of a situation in which you have many, many degrees of freedom, but despite all the possibilities, you always act in more or less the same way whenever you are in this situation. What is the reason that you do not choose any of the other possible ways to act? Is your reason related to a culture or “meaning system”? Explain.

25 26 Levels of Freedom
by syed0915
Dec 8, 2017 4:13:09 GMT

September 11

Board Threads Posts Last Post
No New Posts Introduce yourself

Introduce yourself to your classmates. Tell them something that will help them remember you, your reasons for taking the Psychology course, your idea of what you hope to learn in this course, where you are from, where you go to school, or whatever other things are on your mind.

89 90 SINA
by sina
Dec 9, 2017 17:19:37 GMT
No New Posts The psychologists you know

Are you familiar with any Psychologists? What persons have you heard about who you think might be Psychologists? What can you say about why the Psychologists with whom you are familiar are well known?

24 26 Freud
by mvanjaa
Nov 16, 2017 0:39:20 GMT
No New Posts What psychologists study

Geologists study rocks, volcanoes, ocean floors, etc. Historians study events that occurred in the past. Physicists study elementary particles like atoms, electrons and their movement in space. Economists study money and its movement through society. What is your idea at this point about what Psychologists study?

19 19 What psychology study
by vivia890
Sept 29, 2017 17:35:21 GMT
No New Posts Topics in Psychology

What are some topics or ideas that you expect a student might hear about in a Psychology course? Which topics are you particularly interested in learning more about?

24 28 Family relationships that Affect the upbringing of children
by syed0915
Dec 2, 2017 20:23:57 GMT
No New Posts Social issues and Psychology

Think of some important social problems that you care about -- poverty, racism, global warming, homelessness, .... Do you think there are psychological aspects to these issues? How might a psychologist be involved in studying and resolving such problems?

11 14 Social Problems
by rosesi
Sept 18, 2017 19:21:30 GMT
No New Posts Speak to a psychologist

If you had the opportunity to speak to the world's most knowledgeable Psychologist for an hour or so, what would you want to find out? What is a specific question you would ask?

12 12 Speaking to a psychologist
by vivia890
Sept 29, 2017 17:47:48 GMT

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